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Suicide. Its a difficult topic to bring up. However, when someone talks about suicide or brings up concern for a loved one, its important to take action and seek help quickly.
Suicide means that someone ends their life on purpose. However, people who die by suicide or attempt suicide may not really want to end their life. Suicide may seem like the only way to deal with difficult feelings or situations.
About 4000 Canadians die by suicide every year. Suicide is the second-most common cause of death among young people, but men in their 40s and 50s have the highest rate of suicide. While women are three to four times more likely to attempt suicide than men, men are three times more likely to die by suicide than women.
Suicide is a complicated issue. People who die by suicide or attempt suicide usually feel overwhelmed, hopeless, helpless, desperate, and alone. In some rare cases, people who experience psychosis (losing touch with reality) may hear voices that tell them to end their life.
Many different situations and experiences can lead someone to consider suicide. Known risk factors for suicide include:
While we often think of suicide in relation to depression, anxiety, and substance use problems, any mental illness may increase the risk of suicide. Its also important to remember that suicide may not be related to any mental illness.
Major warning signs of suicide spell IS PATH WARM:
IIdeation: thinking about suicide
SSubstance use: problems with drugs or alcohol
PPurposelessness: feeling like there is no purpose in life or reason for living
AAnxiety: feeling intense anxiety or feeling overwhelmed and unable to cope
TTrapped: feeling trapped or feeling like there is no way out of a situation
HHopelessness or Helplessness: feeling no hope for the future, feeling like things will never get better
WWithdrawal: avoiding family, friends, or activities
AAnger: feeling unreasonable anger
RRecklessness: engaging in risky or harmful activities normally avoided
MMood change: a significant change in mood
Though not all suicides can be prevented, some strategies can help reduce the risk. All of these factors are linked to well-being. These strategies include:
When a person receives treatment for a mental illness, it can still take time for thoughts of suicide to become manageable and stop. Good treatment is very important, but it may not immediately eliminate the risk of suicide. Its important to stay connected with a care team, monitor for thoughts of suicide, and seek extra help if its needed. Community-based programs that help people manage stress or other daily challenges can also be very helpful.
Thoughts of suicide are distressing. Its important to talk about your experiences with your doctor, mental health care team, or any other person you trust. They can help you learn skills to cope and connect you to useful groups or resources. Some people find it helpful to schedule frequent appointments with care providers or request phone support. Other things that you can do include:
If youre in crisis and arent sure what to do, you can always call 9-1-1 or go to your local emergency room.
Some people find a safety plan useful. A safety plan is a list of personal strategies to use if you think you are at risk of hurting or ending your life. You can create a plan on your own, with a loved one, or with your mental health care team. Your plan may include:
If youre concerned about someone else, talk with them. Ask them directly if theyre thinking about suicide. Talking about suicide wont give them the idea. If someone is seriously considering suicide, they may be relieved that they can talk about it.
If someone you love says that theyre thinking about ending their life, its important to ask them if they have a plan. If they have a plan and intend to end their life soon, connect with crisis services or supports right away. Many areas have a crisis, distress, or suicide helpline, but you can always call 9-1-1 if you dont know who to call. Stay with your loved one while you make the call, and dont leave until the crisis line or emergency responders say you can leave.
The two most important things you can do are listen and help them connect with mental health services.
Here are tips for talking with a loved one:
If your loved one already sees a doctor or other mental health service provider, its important that they tell their service provider about any thoughts of suicide they may have been having. Depending on your relationship, you can offer to helpby helping your loved one schedule appointments or by taking them to their appointments, for example.
If your loved one doesnt see a mental health service provider, you can give them the phone number for a local crisis line and encourage them to see their doctor. Your loved one may also be able to access services through their school, workplace, cultural or faith community.
Supporting a loved one can be a difficult experience for anyone, so its important to take care of your own mental health during this time and seek support if you need it.
Contact a community organization like the Canadian Mental Health Association to learn more about support and resources in your area.
Founded in 1918, The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) is a national charity that helps maintain and improve mental health for all Canadians. As the nation-wide leader and champion for mental health, CMHA helps people access the community resources they need to build resilience and support recovery from mental illness.